Sunday, 27 January 2013

Ritwick Sinha qualifies for Level II exam in the 6th IMO

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Ritwick Sinha, son of Mr. Ramendu Sinha and Rina Rani Sinha, Guwahati and a student of Class VI of Don Bosco Senior Secondary School, Guwahati has secured 1st rank in the School, 9th in the State and 42nd in the International rank in the Sixth International Mathematics Olympiad (IMO), conducted by Science Olympiad Foundation, New Delhi, in the month of November, 2012. He was qualified for Level-II Examination scheduled to be held on 17th  February, 2013. 

Those candidates are allowed to appear for Second Level Examination who are in top 5 per cent classwise, or they are top 10 rank holders in the state (classwise), or they are class topper in which at least 10 students have appeared in the exam. 

Tuesday, 22 January 2013

Indologist Kali Prasad Sinha declared jatir janak

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Ramlal Sinha

GUWAHATI, Jan 21

At long last, one of the most scholarly Indologists of the nation who had left behind an oeuvre of around 60 books in English, Assamese, Bengali and Bishnupriya Manipuri on Indian philosophy and linguistics, Dr Kali Prasad Sinha, was posthumously declared Jatir Janak of the Bishnupriya Manipuri community on Sunday by as many as five organisations at a function organised on the occasion of his 77th birth anniversary at Dibyasharam in Kachudharam, a sleepy village on the outskirts of Silchar town where the scholar was born. 


Dr Kali Prasad was a Sanskrit professor in Gauhati University, Tripura University and Assam University. His research paper “A Study on Bishnupriya Manipuri Language” brought him the Doctor of Philosophy degree from Jadavpur University in 1968. His research work on “Absolute in Indian Philosophy” brought him D Lit degree from Burdwan University, Calcutta, in 1983. In 1994, his statements and research works that were submitted to the Assam Backward Class Commission played a significant role in the recognition of Bishnurpiya Manipuri nomenclature and inclusion of the community in the OBC list for which the community had to fight a long legal battle that had gone up to the apex court.

The development came close on the heels of poet of repute Brojendra Kumar Sinha terming the Indologist as the Jatir Janak of the Bishnupriya Manipuri community in his article published in the ‘Dr Kali Prasad Sinha Smarak Grantha’ edited by Sushilkumar Sinha of Pouri International, Bangladesh. The souvenir was released at a function at Silchar recently. The article of the poet did stir up a hornets’ nest in circles concerned. 


According to Bishnupriya Manipuri Sahitya Sabha (BMSS) general secretary Mani Kanta Sinha, who was the convener of the event, the five organisations that declared the scholar as Jatir Janak of the Bishnupriya Manipuri community are – the BMSS, Nikhil Bishnupriya Manipuri Students’ Union (NBMSU), Bishnupriya Manipuri Ganasangram Parishad, All Assam Bishnupriya Manipuri Mahila Samiti and the Bishnupriya Manipuri Teachers’ Association. 

Talking to Seven Sisters Post, student leader Anil Rajkumar said that leaders of the Nikhil Bishnupriya Manipuri Mahasabha (NBMM), despite being invited to the event, were conspicuous by their absence at the meeting. 


In fact, the celebration of the 77th birth anniversary of the scholar had begun on January 3 at Dibyasharam and at various other places. The 17-day programme concluded with a function that was presided over by Narendra Chandra Sinha and participated by former GC College principal Bimal Sinha as the chief guest. The meeting also felicitated as many as 20 personalities who excelled in diverse fields. Some of them, according to Mani Kanta Sinha, are noted short story writer Indra Kumar Sinha, duhar (dancer) Amulya Sinha, dhakula (khulist) Dhalamoni Sinha, ideal teachers Puranjoy Sinha and Jitendra Sinha and others.



Thursday, 17 January 2013

The sacrosanct nature of text (III)

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Taken from Naishabdar Buke Mi Chetan Satta by Champalal Sinha
Translated and annotated by Ramlal Sinha

Late Surachandra Sinha, father of poet Champalal Sinha, did give his own explanations to around nine to 10 poems of his son. The explanations of some of the poems have been retrieved so far. “The never-dying banyan leaf” (Akshay tritiyar bhatpatahan) is one of the poems that had been explained by late Sinha. Poet Champalal Sinha and his father were complementary even when the son was just a child insofar as intellectual skill and quality are concerned. It was through his son, with a gifted power of conception, that late Sinha studied the religious scriptures meant for sadhaks that he had inherited from his preceptor, Guru (late) Vidyapati Sinha of Bangladesh. In the process, the poet acquired knowledge that was generally not expected of a teenager. Theirs was a cottage redolent of spiritualism with their round-the-clock conscious breathing (the ajapa japa). The poet has won accolades from various quarters for the depth of his poems and his way of presenting them, words chosen to convey the message he wants to give to his readers and his unique art of keeping the central idea concealed in a web of words by leaving only one or two keys for readers to grasp. The spiritual poems of Champalal Sinha and their depth make it very difficult for one to pigeonhole him under one bracket, along with his contemporary poets, though his poetry has many themes common with theirs. His diction and technique make the task of the translator truly Herculean in the real sense of the term. When a poem or any other literary work is translated into another language, the translator has to see that the import of the original is not lost. He/she should challenge the cliché that a book or a literary work loses something in translation, no matter how successful he/she is.

The never-dying banyan leaf
(Akshay tritiyar bhatpatahan)

Inking the name on
The never-dying banyan leaf
I let it stay afloat in the sky
On the third bright Baisakh night
The choppy leaf keeps floating
In the sky,
Amid the anxious gazing
Water cascades down a rivulet
In no time and falls on my head
And overflows all over
In three courses;
I notice the integrated Veda
Adrift along the middle course.
Oh, the choppy banyan leaf
Of akshay tritiya!
Keep vibrating in the sky
Unending
Let your wave of elixir of life
Erase all blots from our minds!!

Hints given by late Sinha:
This poem is about the secrets of sacrosanct sexology (rotitattva) that Vaishnavs are well acquainted with. Writing the name on a banyan leaf and placing the leaf in the sky stand in total contrast to the secrets of Khirod sagore batapottrate shayan (lying down on the banyan leaf in the Sea of Elixir). This reminds us of the secrets of the verse of Chandidas:
Matir janam/na chhilo jakhan/takhan korechhi chash/divas rajani/na chhilo jakhan/takhan ganechhi mas

(Something cultivated even before one’s birth on land i.e. while in mother’s womb, and the countdown to one being born is over even before one experiences the difference between day and night i.e. while in mother’s womb.)

The phrases ‘keeps floating in the sky’ lead one to yet another verse of Chandidas:
Sumeru upore/bhramara pashila/ekatha bujhibe ke/Chandidas kohe/rasik hoile/bujhite paribe se

This verse throws light on the sacrosanct details of rotitattva (sexology) from the point of view of Vaishnavism. The description given by the poet is a symbolic representation of the sacrosanct details of sexology as being practised by Vaishnavs.
(1) The sky (shunyahan):
Heaven.
 (2) Banyan leaf: The base or basis of all sadhan-bhajan
 (3) Rivulet: The stream of Shakti representing Gayatri (Gayatrirup shrutodhara). 
 (4) Integrated Veda: The energy or power or potency gained through sadhan-bhajan
There are two different pathways—one upstream and the other downstream—starting from the very point where the breath of life originates during the practice if ajapa-japa. While one breath of air goes downstream round jivatma (individual sole), the other goes upstream round the never-dying and golden Paramatma (the Supreme Being) in the form of ‘Om’.

Explanation by the translator:
According to Hindu philosophy, the existence of Parambrahma (the Supreme Being) is a universal truth; He is self-evolved and complete in its true sense. For the Creation He makes a promise, (a Brahma sankalpa)—Ekaihang bahuslryam projajeyo meaning ‘I’m one and will become many’.  However, no creation is possible without the union of purusha (cosmic male) and prakriti (Shakti or Mother Nature). This led Parameswar to create purusha from His right side and prakriti with exquisite beauty and extreme power from His left side. Prolonged meditation by both purusha and prakriti  caused the release of water from their respective bodies forming the khirod sagar where they lay down for years and came to be known as Narayan and Narayani (Nar meaning water and Ayan meaning sleeping). Thus, khirod sagore batapottrate shayan is the very beginning of the Creation.

However, the secrets that late Sinha wants to lay bare in the verse of Chandidas—Sumeru upore/bhramara pashila/ekatha bujhibe ke/Chandidas kohe/rasik hoile/bujhite paribe se —are in total contrast to the secrets of khirod sagore batapotrate shayan.

“Radha and Krsna display Their pastimes through Krsna’s internal energy. The pleasure potency of Krsna’s internal energy is a most difficult subject matter, and unless one understands what Krsna is, one cannot understand it. Krsna does not take any pleasure in this material world, but He has pleasure potency. Because we are part and parcel of Krsna, the pleasure potency is within us also, but we are trying to exhibit that pleasure potency in matter. Krsna, however, does not make such a vain attempt. The object of Krsna’s pleasure potency is Radharani; Krsna exhibits His potency or energy as Radharani, and then engages in loving affairs with Her. In other words, Krsna does not take pleasure in this external energy but exhibits His internal energy, His pleasure potency, as Radharani. Thus Krsna manifests Himself as Radharani in order to exhibit His internal pleasure potency. Of the many extensions, expansions and incarnations of the Lord, this pleasure potency is the foremost and chief.

“It is not that Radharani is separate from Krsna. Radharani is also Krsna, for there is no difference between the energy and the energetic. Without energy, there is no meaning to the energetic, and without the energetic, there is no energy. Similarly, without Radha there is no meaning to Krsna, and without Krsna there is no meaning to Radha. Because of this, the Vaisnava philosophy first of all pays obeisances to and worships the internal pleasure potency of the Supreme Lord. Thus the Lord and His potency are always referred to as Radha-Krsna. Similarly, those who worship the name of Narayana first of all utter the name of Laksmi, as Laksmi-Narayana. Similarly, those who worship Lord Rama first of all utter the name of Sita. In any case—Sita-Rama, Radha-Krsna, Laksmi-Narayana—the potency always comes first.”
(Caitanya-caritamrta)

By the phrases Sumeru upore/bhramara pashila/ekatha bujhibe ke, late Sinha indicates Shaktipuja performed by Vaishnavs. As stated in Chatanya Charitamrita and other scriptures, Shakti (Maa Kali or Maa Durga) is the source of all pleasure potency or energy, and that Shiva becomes potent or energetic (shaktisali) by attaining the pleasure potency or energy from Shankti by worshiping Her. By the word sumeru Chandidas means to say junipith (clitoris) where Shiva sits and performs Shaktipuja to gain pleasure potency or energy (shakti) from Shakti to become potent or energetic. Like Lord Shiva, Narayan undertakes Shaktipuja to gain potency from Lakshmi to become potent, and Srikrisha from Sriradharani. Shaktipuja is an integral part of bhajan-sadhan for every Vaishnav who becomes potent by attaining pleasure potency from his sangini (consort). 

Keeping words like ‘clitoris’ and ‘heaven’ under the cloak of banyan leaf of akshay tritiya (third day of Shuklapakshya in Baishakh when gifts can never decrease ones assets, here pleasure potency), and the sky the poet refers to in symbolic details the rotitattva that is practised by Vaishnavs.

With his deft command over diction, the poet faded the sacrosanct details of Vaishnavite sexology into the woodwork of the poem so as to avoid any infringement of sacrosanct truths or realities. The phrases akshay tritiya give enough an indication to the Vaishnavite copulation without ejaculation (viryapatan) as viryapatan, according to them, is nothing but downfall (patan means fall) in each sense of the word. It’s through sadhan-bhajan Vaishnavs can redirect the flow of their sperms in three separate streams within their bodies (as the poet says tinhan dhara or three courses)— eda, pingala and sushumna—that meet at the ajnachakra or tribenisangam (the Ganga, the Yumana and the Saraswati at present) where a Vaishnav takes his holy dip (punyasnan), thereby shaking off all blots in life.

By the phrases ‘integrated Veda’ or the energy or power the poet indicates that potency that a Vaishnav gains through regular Shaktipuja. Unlike the common man, a Vaishnav never ejaculates sperms so as to remain potent as that helps him scale new heights in sadhan-bhajan and to be close to God.

It’s worth mentioning that from the very point where the life breath is generated during the ajapa japa the life breath goes round two courses – while the upstream course goes  round Paramatma, the down stream course goes round jivatma (individual soul). Paramatma is akshay, unending and golden in the form of ‘Om’ in the upstream.

In the last stanza, the poet, like every other Vaishnav, prays to the banyan leaf of akshay tritiya to remain choppy in Heaven forever so that its wave of elixir of life cleanses humans of all blemishes during punyasnan in tribenisangam—the juncture of ida, pingala and sushamna. 

To be concluded
Courtesy: Seven Sisters Post

Wednesday, 9 January 2013

Ritwick Sinha fetches top ranks in National Cyber Olympiad

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Ritwick Sinha, a Class VI student of Don Bosco Senior Secondary School, Guwahati has secured 1st rank in the School, 2nd in the City, 6th in the State and the International rank is 158, in the 12th National Cyber Olympiad, which was conducted by Science Olympiad Foundation, New Delhi in the year 2012 and he was awarded a gold medal. He is the son of Mr. Ramendu Sinha and Rina Rani Sinha, Guwahati.

Tuesday, 8 January 2013

The sacrosanct nature of text (II)

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Late Surachandra Sinha, father of poet Champalal Sinha, did give his own explanations to around nine to 10  poems of his son. The explanations of some of the poems have been retrieved so far. 

Teir ruphanor bhitore (In her beauty) is one of the poems that had been explained by late Sinha. Poet Champalal Sinha and his father were complementary even when the son was just a child insofar as intellectual skill and quality are concerned. It was through his son, with a gifted power of conception, that late Sinha studied the religious scriptures meant for sadhaks that he had inherited from his preceptor, Guru (late) Vidyapati Sinha of Bangladesh. In the process, the poet acquired knowledge that was generally not expected of a teenager. Theirs was a cottage redolent of spiritualism with  their round-the-clock conscious breathing (the ajapa japa). The poet has got accolades from various quarters for the depth of his poems and his way of presenting them, words chosen to convey the message he wants to give to his readers and his unique art of keeping the central idea concealed in a web of words by leaving only one or two keys for readers to grasp . His diction and technique make the task of the translator truly Herculean in the real sense of the term. When a poem or any other literary work is translated into another language, the translator has to see that the import of the original is not lost. He/she should challenge the cliché that a book or a literary work loses something in translation, no matter how successful he/she is.

A verse from ‘Naishabdar Buke Mi Chetan Satta’ by Champalal Sinha
Translated and annotated by Ramlal Sinha
In her beauty
(Teir ruphanor bhitore)

I’d a snooze in her beauty. 
Redolent of floral fragrance
Is the lustre of her craft,
Her breasts cradle an art
That glorifies the glory of
An encounter like the wish
Of the night with a zest for life
And her exclusive lustre.
Often she’s wont to play
A game of shredding
Of arts and crafts, and
When that engrosses her,
Her smile speaks 
Of an antique design,
I then become studious
And go through thoroughly
Syntactic details of lovemaking.
With the hope of some ‘realities’
That could be left out there
When I look at the white valley
A white hot breeze wafts along,
Lashes me thoroughly,
Makes me an analytical chemist;
I penetrate at ease the mystery
Of the chemistry of fire and water,
The mystery of the Creation
Only conveys deep reverence
Of the encounter, crystal clear!

Hints given by late Surachandra Sinha:
(1) Breasts: The chest. The poet sees God as his fiancée.
(2) Her: For many poets, God becomes someone very close to them like she, he, fiancé, fiancée, friend and the like.
(3)  Arts and crafts: The mystery of the Creation.
(4) Her smile: In common parlance, the smile of the fiancée of the poet. The spiritual meaning is ‘being witness to the divine qualities of God’.
(5) An antique design: The process of creation. The spiritual meaning is ‘the sacrosanct details of the Creation’. 
(6) Syntactic details of lovemaking:  Sexology (rotitattva) in common parlance. The hidden meaning is spiritual details of sadhan-bhojan.
(7) A snooze in her beauty: The poet immersing himself in the lustrous beauty of God.
The lustre of her craft is/Redolent of floral fragrance:  Communing with God is possible through the five rudiments and their corresponding senses – sight, smell, taste, touch and sound. Thus one can guess where and in what form God is.
(8) Encounter: Sexual encounter in common parlance. The spiritual meaning is to overcome the trying situations that a sadhak confronts.
(9) White valley:  Not explained. Explanation is fraught with the risk of infringement of the sacrosanct details of the text.
(10)  When I look at the white valley... Crystal clear: The readers need to feel it through their individual soul-searching exercise in accordance with the guidance of their gurus. Laying such a text bare is forbidden.

Explanation by the translator:
The hints given by late Sinha are enough for one to appreciate the sacrosanct content that fades into the woodwork of the poem. The poet treads quietly and cautiously a sacrosanct area by explaining details of the shadhan-bhajan vis-à-vis the secrets of the Creation under the cloak of his deftly accomplished woodwork that is strong enough to lead the reader (audience) to a superficial world. The superficial and the spiritual meanings of the poem are poles apart from each other. For a man of good humour, the woodwork of the poem is not opaque enough to conceal the spiritual meaning of the poem. Late Sinha, a sadhak, was a reader of good humour indeed. 

The hints speak volumes about the fact that the poet is in love with God whom he sees as his fiancée. While the apparent meaning of the poem leads one to all worldly pleasure, the spiritual meaning therein leads a man of good homour to the sacrosanct reality of the love between Prokriti (Mother Nature) and Purusha (cosmic male) who can be represented by any pair of fiancé and fiancée of mortal beings.
As interpreted by late Sinha, words like ‘breasts’  and ‘she’ render one unable to see the wood for the trees — hat the poet considers God as being very close to him like his fiancée. In fact, for many poets, God may be their fiancé, fiancée, friend and spouse. They consider God to be very close to them, and so He is no different from them.

With the phrase ‘arts and crafts,’ the poet keeps the sacrosanct mystery of the great Creation under the cloak of craftsmanship of a seemingly mortal fiancée. In fact, for many of us, the mystery of the Creation is inexplicable because of our ignorance or lack of awareness of ourselves and God.
By the phrase ‘antique design’ the poet wants to give the sacrosanct details of the Creation. How close the poet is to his ‘fiancée’ or God can be gauged from the very fact that he can read every smile or wink of his sweetheart.

As indicated by the poet’s father, the phrase ‘going through the syntactic details of lovemaking’ means the very activities of God or His game of the Creation makes him curious enough to unearth the reality. In fact, sexology (rotitattva), according to Vaishnavism, is a sacrosanct area where there is no room for any carnal desire. By the word ‘encounter’ the poet means a devotee’s encounter with the six passions of mind – kama (lust), krodha (anger), lobh (greed), moho (attachment) and mada or ahankara (pride), and his victory over them or the sort of activities a devotee does to make that happen. Rampant Westernisation has made Indian society deviate from the path it is supposed to follow leading to increasing sexual crimes. 

Late Sinha was silent on ‘white valley’ as he sought to avoid any infringement of the sacrosanctity of the area and so do I. This is an area that readers (audience) need to understand through soul searching exercise under the tutelage of their gurus.    To be concluded

Courtesy: Seven Sisters Post

Tuesday, 1 January 2013

The sacrosanct nature of texts (I)

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A verse from Naishabdar Buke Mi Chetan Satta by Champalal Sinha
Translated and annotated by Ramlal Sinha

Late Surachandra Sinha, father of poet Champalal Sinha, did give his own explanations to around nine to 10 poems of his son. The explanations of some of the poems have been retrieved so far. Astitva (existence) is one of the five poems that had been explained by late Sinha. Poet Champalal Sinha and his father were complementary even when the son was just a child insofar as intellectual skill and quality are concerned. It was through his son, with a gifted power of conception, that late Sinha studied the religious scriptures meant for sadhaks that he had inherited from his preceptor, Guru (late) Vidyapati Sinha of Bangladesh. In the process, the poet acquired knowledge that was generally not expected of a teenager. Theirs was a cottage redolent of spiritualism with their round-the-clock conscious breathing (the ajapa japa). The poet has got accolades from various quarters for the depth of his poems and his way of presenting them, words chosen to convey the message he wants to give to his readers and his unique art of keeping the central idea concealed in a web of words by leaving only one or two keys for readers to grasp . His diction and technique make the task of the translator truly Herculean in the real sense of the term. When a poem or any other literary work is translated into another language, the translator has to see that the import of the original is not lost. He/she should challenge the cliché that a book or a literary work loses something in translation, no matter how successful he/she is. 

Existence (Astitva)
‘A word’ breathes out
Hits the eardrums,
Looking skyward
I see over there — ‘I’m’!
As if a pair of lotuses
The two cohesive words Do stay afloat there, still!

Explanation by late Surachandra Sinha:

When a devotee gets a glimpse of the visual form of the Supreme Spirit through meditation, pranayama (restraint of the prana or breath), imaging etc., he perceives directly that he is no different from the Supreme Spirit. He realises ‘sohham or soh oham’ that means ‘I’m He or the Supreme Being’. In other words, when a devotee attains grace, his highest realisation is ‘I’m He, the Supreme Being’. 

Hints:
(1) ‘A word’: The Absolute Spirit. Its presence is in all living beings as the life breath. A devotee has Him in a visible form through meditation and pranayamas, pays Him homage and achieves bliss.

(2) The Sky: Where the menacing shout of sahasrar (the seat of soul) or Nadabrahma (Divine Sound or the Sound of the Universe) is generated. The Power of Hongkar (the sound) is the precursor of all amorous sports (leela-khela) for the great Creation, leading to the multiplication of the Absolute Spirit into innumerable individual souls (beings). However, as an entity, He is always ‘Akhand Mandalakaram’ — Akhand — unfragmented; Mandalakaram — one infinite whole.

(3) ‘I’m’ (I — myself and am — existence): Soham or Soh Ham (Oham — I, that is jivatma or individual soul. Astitva (existence) — So or He, that is, Paramatma or the Supreme Spirit.

(4) Eardrums: Doorways to a conscious man (chetan purush). Elaboration by the translator: Through this poem, the poet wants to share with his readers (audience) the realisation he attains during his sadhana which literally means ‘a means of accomplishing something’ through the ajapa mantra or ajapa japa — sohham (soh ham). Going by the explanation given by the poet’s father, late Surachandra Sinha, the word that a devotee breathes in every inhalation is The Absolute Spirit ‘soh’ means ‘He’ or God and breathes out ‘Ham’ which means ‘I’ in every exhalation. Through his meditation and pranayama, a devotee can communicate with Him (The Absolute Spirit) and pay Him obeisance, thereby attaining bliss. This apart, he realises the ultimate truth that jivatma is no different from the Paramatma. As explained by late Surachandra Sinha, by the word ‘Sky’, the poet means Nadabrahma which means that the entire universe was created from the energy of sound — it is the only sound that exists in the beginning. The Sanskrit word ‘nada’ means sound and ‘Brahma’ means God. Thus, Nadabrahma means the Sound is God or the Sound of God, the main force behind the great Creation. The Sanskrit word leela’ is a concept within Hinduism meaning ‘pastime’, sports or ‘play’. Leela, according to sadhaks and scholars, is common to both the philosophical schools — monistic and dualistic — each of which has its own significance. Within monism, leela is a way of describing all reality, including the cosmos, as the outcome of the Creative play by the divine absolute (Brahma). In the dualistic schools of Vaishnavism, leela is more simply referred to as the activities of God and His devotees, as distinct from the common activities of karma. Scientific research now recognises that all creation is energy in movement and vibration — each vibration having its own sound, colour and visual pattern. When the vibration is slow enough, it is recognised as material world. It is also a fact that the philosophy of all Indian classical music originates from the very concept of Nadabrahma. As indicated by late Surachandra Sinha, soham or soh oham — the sadhana of ajapa japa — is the constant repeating of a mantra or constant awareness of the mantra or of what the mantra represents.

According to Hindu scriptures, the sadhana of ajapa japa is as old as the Upanishads. In this japa, a devotee breathes in with the sound (nada) Soh (He or God) and breathes out with the sound Ham (I or self). A devotee practises this japa round the clock. According to shastras, one should practise ‘anahata’ mantra that never ends, and that must extend to infinity. However, there is no such mantra that never ends. Therefore, one needs a method of repeating the mantra so that it does not end. This is achieved through the practice of ajapa japa when the mantra is adjusted with the breathing system. Thus, awareness of the mantra continues throughout the practice with no interruption. In ajapa japa there is an efficient process of locating awareness. Awareness, according to great sadhaks, can be located at any particular centre of the body through a meditative practice. In the practice of ajapa japa, the consciousness is located with the breath and the mantra. In this poem, the poet emphasises that jivatma and Paramatma are one, and it is the Nadabrahma that acts as the precursor of or activates the holy work of the great Creation through amorous sport leading to the multiplication of the Supreme Soul into innumerable individual souls. However, as entity, the Paramatma remains ‘akhanda mandalakaram’ — an unfragmented and infinite whole.

Courtesy: Seven Sisters Post.

 To be concluded
The translator is an Associate editor with Seven Sisters Post
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